DNA Parentage Testing

 

The DNA Parentage testing service allows for the determination of the true biological parent of the child. This method is highly accurate as compared to the conventional ABO blood typing, where the result has the tendency to be tentative. Therefore, the DNA parentage testing has become the choice of resolving the conflict of child dispute. Additionally, DNA parental testing can be submitted as acceptable evidence in court system today.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) structure or molecule, which is found in every living organisms was discovered in 1953 by two noted scientists, Watson and Crick. It is responsible for determining the physical and physiological attributes of an organism. For example, the irresistibly bright and captivating scent of a rose flower, the effervescent and flexible trunk of an elephant, or simply the alluring and elegant color of the eyes. Whatever the DNA has programmed to accomplished from the beginning of life can only be appreciated as the great artworks of Michelangelo.

DNA is a unique structure, because it remains constant for a lifetime much like our fingerprint's geometrical line pattern is maintained without varying in shape. DNA can be obtained from buccal cells, or various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, synovial, etc. DNA is extracted and isolated by using an ultra speed centrifuge (< 20,000 rpm). The identification of DNA is done by searching for matching allele sizes from the child, father and/or mother using methods of electrophoresis or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

DNA On Your Side - The Process

DNA analysis is often tedious and time consuming. For these reasons, it is only done by a highly trained and experienced individual holding a Doctorate Degree in Science. This assures high confidence in results at all times.

As with any type of scientific analysis (drug, alcohol, microbial, etc.), collaboratively, successful accomplishment of this task begins with the documentation of all required information and properly collecting the sample. To facilitate and greatly reduce the burden of this imperative duty, we have devised a protocol that is quick, simple, and highly effective. The following will help guide you, as well as explain the process of doing parentage DNA analysis. We hoped that we could satisfactorily serve your interest, and find this an interesting and educational adventure.

1.
Gathering Information

I
n order to determine parentage, the child, the father, and/or the mother must participate. Information such as name, address, birth date, social security number will be gathered from each participating individual. If the case has legal implications, a fingerprint, facial photograph, and notarization of the laboratory report are required.

2.
Specimen Collection

DNA On Your Side - The Process

DNA analysis is often tedious and time consuming. For these reasons, it is only done by a highly trained and experienced individual holding a Doctorate Degree in Science. This assures high confidence in results at all times.

As with any type of scientific analysis (drug, alcohol, microbial, etc.), collaboratively, successful accomplishment of this task begins with the documentation of all required information and properly collecting the sample. To facilitate and greatly reduce the burden of this imperative duty, we have devised a protocol that is quick, simple, and highly effective. The following will help guide you, as well as explain the process of doing parentage DNA analysis. We hoped that we could satisfactorily serve your interest, and find this an interesting and educational adventure.

 

1. Gathering Information

In order to determine parentage, the child, the father, and/or the mother must participate. Information such as name, address, birth date, social security number will be gathered from each participating individual. If the case has legal implications, a fingerprint, facial photograph, and notarization of the laboratory report are required.

2.
Specimen Collection


Prenatal


In a case where there is an immediate need to determine parentage, prenatal DNA parentage analysis is also available. Sample collection method will vary depending on the stage of pregnancy. In general, pregnancy of time length of 10-13 weeks and 14-24 weeks, procedures will be done by Chorionic Villi Sampling and Amniocentesis, respectively. To arrange for prenatal specimen collection, please contact your OB/GYN physician. We will provide all necessary forms and specimen collection kits.

3.
Reporting of Results

Results will be available within 9-14 working days. This will be reported as 0 % or > 99 % for non-matching child and alleged father, and matching child and /alleged father, respectively.

 Generation and Interpretation of DNA Analysis Results
We realized the technical complexity of doing DNA analysis. It is our pleasure to discuss with great simplicity of how the results of DNA analysis is reached and reported.

The basis of DNA Paternity analysis assumes a 50 % probability that the alleged father is the father of the child. As mentioned earlier, paternity is determined by searching for an exact matching allele size (gene) of the parent with the allele size of the child.

To interpret the DNA analysis result, there are a few important simplified technical terms to consider.


Allele - a component that carries the genetic information or traits that are contributed by the mother and father, and occupies a specific position in a chromosome. Allele comes in pair which vary in size from one individual to another.
Allele size - a factor that is use in determining whether or not a match exist. This is indicated by measuring the size of the allele in kilobase pairs (kbp). For example, one half of the allele pair from the mother's allele was measured to be 2.75 kbp and the other half was measured at 1.25 kbp. Since an allele is in pair form, one half of allele size of each pair will match the father and the other half of the allele size will match the mother. See Figure 1.
Chromosome - a structure that contains DNA which transmits information. Human beings contains a total of 46 chromosomes contributed by one half from the father and mother.
Gene - the basis of heredity, self-generating and located on an exact position (locus) on a particular chromosome.
Locus - The location of the gene in a chromosome
Paternity Index (PI)
- A devise of generating odds (Probability of Paternity - see below) for the alleged father with a matching allele indicating that he is the true father of the child of interest. The PI refers to the specific DNA probe use in DNA locus identification. Additionally, PI vary in odds depending on type of probe use. For example, DNA Probe DC1 with PI 200 and DNA Probe DC2 with PI 30 denotes one out of every 200 and one out of 30, respectively males of same race will have similar allele size.

 

Calculating Probability of Paternity (PrP)
Formula; PrP (%) = (1/CPI -1) x 100
Example 1
DNA Probes            PI Value
A1 (15)                         A2 (25 )
A3 (22.5)                     A4 (60.3 )


Step 1. Multiply the PI Values, CPI;  CPI = 15 x 25 x 22.5 x 60.3 = 108,781
Step 2. Plug the CPI value to the equation of
                              PrP (%) = (1/CPI -1) x 100
                              Probability of Paternity (PrP) = (1/508,781) -100 = 99.999 %

The Combined Paternity Index (CPI), which is done on a pool base on race is derived from multiplying all of the PI's involved. The higher the value of CPI, the more likely the alleged father is the father of the child. CPI is rated on the following.
CPI Values                   Rating (likelihood of being the father)

20-99                                             Low
100-399                                          Moderate
> 400                                             Very High


Probe - a fragment from a labeled DNA used as a means of identifying certain locus DNA

Sample DNA analysis report

Dan D. Lion, a refugee from the island of Maldive was the subject of scrutiny for fathering the child of the famous orange orchid flower smeller, Sonia Sampaguita. Dan D. Lion denies the allegations that he ever touched this woman. He asked that his guilt be proven. He agreed to a DNA Paternity analysis.

The participating parties of Hispanic race for DNA Paternity testing include the child, the alleged father, and the mother.

Figure 1. DNA analysis result for the child, mother, and alleged father.
 DNA probes with corresponding
 PI
values
Allele Pair Size (kbp)  
DX1, PI 27.5 2.6, 1.29 2.6, 1.75 3.5, 2.1
DX2, PI 77.3 3.81, 2.86 4.56, 4.1 4.85, 4.1
DX3, PI 12.5 5.88, 4.23 4.95, 3.89 4.95, 3.1
DX 4, PI 33.5 2.25, 1.75 2.62, 2.15 3.79, 3.44

According to Figure 1, an allele size match occurs from the mother and child having allele size of 2.60 using DX1 probe, and the alleged father and child having allele size of 4.10 and 4.95 from DNA probes of DX2 and DX3, respectively.

To substantiate the allele size match findings, the following factors of CPI and PrP were calculated.

CPI = 27.5 x 77.3 x 12.5 x 33.5 = 890,157

Probability of Paternity (PrP) = (1/890,157 -1) x 100 = 99.999 %

In conclusion, the alleged father is 99.999 % probable and 890,157 times more likely to be the true biological father of the child as compared to a non-analyzed random male of equal race.

According to Figure 1, an allele size match occurs from the mother and child having allele size of 2.60 using DX1 probe, and the alleged father and child having allele size of 4.10 and 4.95 from DNA probes of DX2 and DX3, respectively.

To substantiate the allele size match findings, the following factors of CPI and PrP were calculated.

CPI = 27.5 x 77.3 x 12.5 x 33.5 = 890,157

Probability of Paternity (PrP) = (1/890,157 -1) x 100 = 99.999 %

n conclusion, the alleged father is 99.999 % probable and 890,157 times more likely to be the true biological father of the child as compared to a non-analyzed random male of equal race.

FEE SCHEDULE


1. Dual Participant (Required) DNA Parentage Analysis - Child, Father or Mother

        Fee $365.00  ORDER NOW

2. Triple Participant DNA Parentage Analysis - Child, Father, and Mother
    
    Advantages

        Higher Accuracy
        Greater Confidence in Results
        Recommended especially in legal situations
                                                                                                   
        Fee $415.00 ORDER NOW   

3
. Re-analyzation of a Disputed DNA Parentage Analysis Result


Fee See Dual or Triple DNA Analysis Fees

4. Chorionic/Amniocentesis Testing - Call our lab at 614-459-2307 for information

Specimen Collection

Local - Please contact our lab at 614-459-2307 for appointment.  There is no charge for onsite (Columbus, Ohio ONLY) specimen collection.

n State/Out of State - A buccal swab collection material along with simple instruction will be sent to the participating parties.  An extra charge for specimen collection is required

BILLING FORM

Payment in full in the form of cash, credit, check, or money order please, is required at the time of visit. If for some reason you decide to cancel the test, it is important to notify us within 24 hours after payment is made. However, there will be a 15 % overhead charge for any refunds.